Techniques Used In Mining

Mining is the process of extracting precious minerals or other geological resources underneath the earth’s surface and they usually come from a seam, a vein, an orebody or a lode. More often than not, these deposits interest a miner for economic reasons. That is why they go through the tedious process of mining just to get it. Examples of ores that have been recovered in the past by miners are dimension stone, gravel, coal, oil, gemstones, metals, shale, potash, clay and rock salt. Mining is usually the recourse when the material needed cannot be artificially made inside a factory or a laboratory or if it cannot be grown and harvested via agricultural means.

The mining process is divided into two digging types: there’s the surface mining and the sub-surface or underground mining. At present, the former is more common compared to the latter and eighty five percent of the minerals we see today, which includes natural gas and petroleum are extracted through the surface mining technique. The same technique goes for all ninety eight percent of all metallic ores.

Let’s talk more in depth about surface mining and sub-surface mining.

Surface mining is a performed to remove or strip of surface dirt and vegetation. If there is a need, it will also remove bedrock. The reason for this is pretty obvious, so the miner can access ore deposits that are buried underneath. The techniques utilized in surface mining are the following: open-pit mining. Open-pit mining recovers materials from the name itself, an opening in the ground. Another example technique known in surface mining is quarrying. It is more or less similar to an open-pit mining only that it involves clay, stone and sand. Strip mining is another technique in surface mining and it involves ‘stripping’ the outer layers to gain access to seams and ores underneath the surface. Another common technique is called mountaintop removal. This is pretty much self-explanatory and it’s usually implemented for coal mining. This technique consists of removing the top layer of a mountain to gain access to ore deposits. And then there’s the landfill mining. This technique involves landfills that are dug up and processed.

Sub-surface mining is the second technique, which involves digging up shafts and tunnels into the ground so the miners can reach ore deposits buried underneath. It is through these shafts and tunnels that waste rock and ores are brought up into the earth’s surface. Sub-surface mining are classified according to the shafts used or the technique or method utilized to get to the ores or mineral deposits. Slope mining is a category that makes use of sloping shafts. Drift mining makes use of horizontal tunnels whereas shaft mining makes use of vertical shafts.

One very important thing to remember in mining is safety. Mining is a dangerous job because it necessitates accurateness. That is why you need to equip yourself not only with knowledge but also with the protective gears needed to do these processes and techniques. You can visit to know more about the products and services they offer specifically to the mining industry.

Turning Mined Quartz And Sodium Carbonate Into Glass

Glass is pretty amazing. It can give us protection but it can also be easily broken. The material it’s made out of is opaque in quality but when it turns to glass it becomes see-through. It is solid but it also has liquid properties. Glass is everywhere. From your mirror to your window to your prescription glasses. We use glass often if not all the time. It’s one of the first materials we’ve manipulated.

How is glass made? Quartz that is usually in the form of sand is heated to its melting point where it then transforms into a liquid state. It has to be at the temperature of about 2000 degrees Celsius. When it is cooled, it doesn’t revert back to it’s sand-like state. It becomes like a solid liquid which is transparent. Solid liquid means that it is a liquid but its molecules move so slowly that you won’t notice it move with the naked eye. If you look at glass panes from houses that are a hundred years old, you’ll notice wavy lines in the glass. That shows the slow movement of the glass molecules. When new, the glass would have no lines.

Glass is awesome because it’s cheap to make, easy to shape when melted, and it’s heat resistant. It also doesn’t react chemically with many substances. It’s great for storage purposes, especially for food. It’s also almost indefinitely recyclable.

The best way to make glass that’s more friendly to the environment is to mix quartz that’s in sand form with old glass that’s been used already. Sodium carbonate would be added to that along with calcium carbonate. All those are then put in an extremely hot furnace. The sodium carbonate helps make the melting point of the quartz and recycled glass lower so that it doesn’t require a lot of energy to run the furnace. The calcium carbonate makes the end product stable. The melted glass can then be put into moulds to make different glass products or it can poured out onto melted tin to make flat sheets of glass used for windows, doors, and mirrors. Glass can also be blown to make unique shapes. Companies like ALS Glass Works Brisbane use the glass produced for household applications like glass balustrades.

Coloured glass can be made by adding other chemicals to the main ingredients. To make it even more heat resistant, boron oxide is added to the melted sand. This heat resistant quality is perfect for making oven-proof kitchenware.

Good Painters Are Needed In The Mining Industry

The last thing you would’ve thought to need good painters is the mining industry. Usually when you think of mines, you think of coal, oil, gold, silver, copper, or other precious metals. You don’t usually think of painting. However, painting plays a very important part in the mining industry. How? The mining industries need professional painters not only for their office buildings, but they also need them for painting other structures related to their industry. Painters need to know how to paint (obviously), put on wallpaper, and put on other finishes on just about any surface. They also need to fix damages and prepare surfaces before painting or refinishing. An in-depth knowledge of each industry’s needs and specific safety regulations must be learned before consulting with customers and providing painting services. They must be good at calculating to get accurate measurements of surface areas that need to painted. The right tools are also important for them to be able to do their jobs properly and safely. They also need to know how to take off old paint correctly and prepare the surface areas for new paint that will last a lifetime.

There is a high demand for painters in the industrial sector. In the past, most painters were needed for residential purposes only but with the increase in industrial activity like oil mining, the need for industrial painters with a thorough knowledge, training, and experience in the industrial sector has risen.

To become a great painter in the industrial sector, one must get training by doing many jobs over many years. There is no better teaching tool than by experience. You’ll come across jobs that are unique and not found in textbooks. This will help you develop your problem-solving skills to see if you can complete jobs despite the challenges posed. It’s great to get an apprenticeship in painting for three to four years to be able to get the right training and education in this field.

The schooling part will teach important safety procedures related to each industry that must be implemented at each job so that you’ll be able to safeguard your life and those of others.

You’ll learn how to paint properly on any surface area required. You’ll learn the proper way to use tools for prepping and painting. You’ll learn to use different chemicals properly in relation to painting and learn what chemicals not to use when painting in certain volatile environments.

There is a lot to know when it comes to commercial and industrial painting. Good training and education is needed to become a master painter. However, it can be a rewarding and high-paying job if diligently done.

The Gold Mine To Be Found In Timber

It’s something that we might overlook when we are seeking refuge inside our home, protected from the cold and rain. The timber we use is the life blood of our home. Even though it’s covered up with gypsum board, moulding, and paint, it’s good to think about what’s beneath the surface because that’s what really counts. What are some of the most popular woods being used in Australian homes? Let’s find out.

You will know it, when you smell it. It smells great and looks even better. The most common is western red cedar. It’s easily identified with its pinkish kind of reddish color. This timber is popular in outdoor furniture. Lots of people use it for deck furniture. Not only that, it’s good to use for deck railing or window frames. Why? It’s great in humid climates because it’s a rot resisting timber. It’s not cheap but looks great. It’s also quite popular for use in fences. One thing to keep in mind, it’s a very soft wood.

Are you building an addition onto your home? Depending on the size of the project, you will be probably be stick framing your roof. If so, you will no doubt be using fir. Its very popular for use in rafter material. Its secret weapon – it’s light but has a lot of strength, perfect for any roof.

Birch will come in a couple of kinds – yellow and white. This is a somewhat hard timber that is mostly used in different types of furniture and even some plywood. If you’re looking for a hardwood that won’t break the bank, then this is the timber for you.

Majestic could be a word used to sum up this timber. The color can vary from brown to a deep red. This is mostly used in antique furniture. It’s not so hard, so people find it easy manipulate into any piece of furniture that you need. Although not commonly found today, remember to try and pick up pieces like this for your home.

Are you looking for something that is a little more expensive than cedar? It is pricey but teak is great timber used for furniture outside. Why? If you were to have piece in front of you, it would be easy to notice a waxy feel with a brown color. It is a naturally water-resistant timber, but it will hurt you a little bit in the wallet. This timber is found in countries like Thailand, Burma, and Bangladesh.

No matter what timber you decide to use in your home, make sure to contact true professionals that can help you pick and install the perfect wood like

Roofing Problems To Look For In Mines

Roof collapse is one of the deadliest hazards of being in the mine business. It is good to have a look at factors that can cause roof failure in order to prevent it from happening in the future. Collapse and damage are caused by many things. It can be caused naturally by the way the mine is formed naturally or the way it has been dug out of the ground. It has been studied that most causes of roof collapse are mostly due to feeble roof structure.

Some causes of roof collapse are influx of water into the roof structure of the mine, undermining the structure. Collapse can also be caused by too much pressure on the mine roof and defective mine roof structuring. Bolts holding the mine roof together can be compromised if the rock formation to which it is attached is weak.

It is also good to note whether there is the presence of water in the rock formations like shale. If water collects there, pressure from the water will cause the rocks to move or break and this makes the roof lose it’s holding strength.

Most roof collapses are avoidable. In previous tragic events, deaths and injuries happened due to miners being in an area that have had roofs that haven’t been properly supported by roof bolts yet. To prevent these in the future which is really difficult because every mine is different, a real thorough study of the geological makeup of the proposed mine must be done. Then a design should be made that minimizes the risk of roof collapse in the area. It is also a good idea to use roof screening that keeps the roof structure together. The screen provides more support and usually holds falling rocks in place giving time for miners to escape. Studies have shown that injuries due to roof collapse have decreased because of installation of mine roof screens.

In short, lives can be saved by taking careful precautions when it comes to structuring mine roofs. Certified Roofing specialists should be consulted before digging mines. Anchors should be properly bolted in to the right rock formation to hold the heavy geological roof in place. It is also wise to study previous mine roof collapses to learn about why they happened and how they can be prevented in the future. It is good to look at examples of roof collapses from different regions, different countries, and different geological areas. A lot of information can be gleaned from it to be able to design mines better and make them safer for the hard-working miners.


SPRING CREEK • 23.4 Sq. Mi. 5,440′ Elevation Assn. Founded 1971 Population 14,320

Near the base of the majestic Ruby Mountains lies the rural community of Spring Creek, a name synonymous with outdoor recreation. Lamoille Canyon, Southfork Reservoir and Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge are within a short drive. The Spring Creek Association, one of the largest private homeowner associations in the US, maintains:

An uncrowded, par 72, 18 hole golf course.

Indoor and outdoor equestrian center known as the Horse Palace.
A trap and skeet range complete with 16 trap houses, two skeet fields and a 5 stand sporting clay course.
5 stand rifle range.
29 space private campground spread over 640 acres at the base of the Ruby Mountains Wilderness which also offers trailhead access to Ruby Dome and Griswold Lake, to name a few.
Barrick Park with a basketball court and baseball diamond.

Marina Park with a 32 acre stocked private lake, which provides opportunities for fishing, canoeing, wildlife viewing, picnicking and various sporting events.
4 baseball diamonds in the existing sports complex.
A new sports complex with four soccer fields is under development.

Spring Creek is uncrowded, unspoiled and safe. Traffic and commute times are a non-existent for most people. Newcomers are welcomed and valued for their fresh perspective and experience. A high level of involvement in Spring Creek’s many clubs and organizations contributed to the community feel. Spring Creek is dedicated to family life, providing education from preschool to high school and sponsoring a variety of youth activities.

Geographic Location

Spring Creek is situated 8 miles south of the city of Elko on Hwy. 227, a.k.a. Lamoille Hwy. The close proximity to Lamoille Canyon, Southfork Reservoir and Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge add to the recreation equation.

Business Climate

Entrepreneurs will find Spring Creek ripe with opportunities. There is no business license requirement. The Spring Creek Association office provides customer referrals and relocation information. The Spring Creek Journal profiles new and existing businesses. There are currently many sites zoned for commercial/industrial development. Home-based businesses also flourish; about 400 are already established. With multiple Internet service providers and an award-winning website developer, Spring Creek utilizes fiber optic access and has 56K capabilities, providing for commercial high-tech needs.

Located in a lush valley along the Humboldt River,

Carlin is the oldest community in Elko County and was once the Western Terminus of the Central Pacific Railroad. Chinese culture is an integral part of Carlin’s history; the area was originally called the Chinese Gardens.

Carlin is the gateway to the world’s largest gold mines. Mining became a major employment base in the 1960s. Two open pit operations mine the Carlin Trend, producing three million ounces of ore annually.
The University of Reno, Fire Science Academy – Crisis and Emergency Management Institute opened a campus just outside of Carlin in 1999. The Academy trains employees for mining, transportation, energy, government agencies and the fields of aviation, computers, chemicals and hospitality. Carlin also has both an elementary and a junior senior high school.

Geothermal activity is noted throughout the Humboldt River area south of the city.

Geographic Location

261 miles west of Salt Lake City on I-80, 271 miles northeast of Reno on I-80.


Known as a sportsman’s paradise, Carlin offers a mountainous background for hunting, rock hounding, hiking, and dirt bike riding. The Chinese Garden Nature Study Area offers picnicking and fishing while the nearby ghost towns of Palisades and Alpha are minutes from the area.


Located in the center of Northern Nevada’s Great Basin, the City of Elko is the geographic base of the Elko County region and the neighboring Eureka, White Pine and Lander Counties. Surrounded by the communities of Sprink Creek, Osino and Ryndon, Elko’s population approached 35,000.

Elko is rich in culture and Western heritage. Home to both the Te-Moak Tribe of the Western Shoshone and the largest Basque population in the US, Elko hosts annual powwows and festivals. Ranching and mining continue as traditional industries. In the pioneer days, many trails traversed this area, establishing the city as the crossroads it continues to be.

Elko serves as the hub for the Northeast Nevada region, conveniently located between Boise, Reno and Salt Lake City. Health services, education, transportation and tourism flourish in Elko. Residential developments are abundant and private and public utilities meet commercial needs.

Geographic Location

Elko lies along Interstate 80 and is the largest city between Salt Lake and Reno/Sparks. The Humboldt River flows through the downtown, running parallel to the railroad tracks of the Union Pacific and the Burlington Northern/Santa Fe.


The majestic Ruby Mountains provide a backdrop for hiking, camping and heli-skiing. Elko’s 18-hole golf course is ranked in the nation’s top 40; sporting complexes, fairgrounds, movie theaters, city parks, and a community ski slope provide exceptional recreation opportunities.

Information provided by City Of Elko, Economic Dev.

Economic picture brightens: Sales figures up; weaknesses in retail

Economic picture brightens: Sales figures up; weaknesses in retail

SEPT. 2003 – ELKO – Elko County’s taxable sales rose in May and June over last year, and the number of people flying out of Elko’s airport on Casino Express were up over May and June of last year, according to new figures.

The numbers of SkyWest Airlines passengers were down for May and June, however, according to the report provided by the city’s accounting manager, Dawn Stout.

These lower passenger counts for SkyWest Airlines illustrate why Elko and the airline have started a campaign to increase passenger numbers.

“The ad campaign didn’t start until August,” Stout said, so future statistics should show whether the campaign is making a difference.

“The good news is that sales are up 6.8 percent for June,” Stout said, adding that the May sales were up 5.2 percent.

“It’s a good sign … and hopefully the economy is turning around,” she said.

The increased sales were in mining and construction, but retail sales were down both months. June retail sales were down 2 percent, from $13,782,965 to $13,461,864, and May retail sales also were down 3 percent, at $12,485,782, compared with $12,878,263 in May 2002.

Elko County’s taxable sales totaled $66,645,415 in June, up $4,227,342 over the June 2002 total sales of $62,418,073, and the biggest hikes was in construction sales, which were up 81 percent.

Sales of construction materials totaled $2,717,106 in June, compared with $1,497,758 in June of last year.

Elko County’s taxable sales in May totaled $60,406,392, up $2,995,301 from the $57,411,091 in sales in May 2002, according to Stout’s figures.

The biggest increase was in mining, up 57 percent, to $1,717,672, from $1,090,726.

Figures for Elko Regional Airport show that enplanements in June totaled 6,595 for Casino Express, compared with 4,791 in June 2002, and May enplanements for Casino Express totaled 6,408, compared with 6,318 last year.

The number of passengers flying out of Elko on SkyWest planes totaled 1,972 in June, compared with 2,514 in June 2002, and the May enplanements for SkyWest also totaled 1,972, compared with 2,336 in May 2002.

Delta Airlines took over the bookings and scheduling for SkyWest into the Elko airport for 18 months, but SkyWest resumed control this summer to try to boost passenger numbers.

Elko’s governmental entities and local media joined forces to help increase those numbers to keep the same number of flights for Elko, including four to and from Salt Lake City and two flights to and from Reno.

Gaming revenue figures for June are another economic indicator, and Stout’s figures show that the total for Elko County outside West Wendover was $8,717,829, compared with $8,577,067 in May 2002.

West Wendover’s revenue totaled $11,699,286 in June, up from $10,912,024 in June 2002.

For May, gaming revenues for the rest of Elko County totaled $8,843,595, down from $8,963,226 in May 2002, and for West Wendover, the May revenues totaled $8,839,936, down from $10,155,230 in May 2002.

Room taxes and motel occupancy rates also provide an economic picture, and the room taxes received in June totaled $172,340, compared with $163,072 in June 2002.

As earlier reported at the Elko Convention and Visitors Authority meetings, the percentage of rooms occupied in June was up to 56 percent from 54 percent.

The motor privilege taxes received in June totaled $261,645, up from $176,883 in June 2002, the figures also show. The May total was $214,205.

In a breakdown of the June sales, the figures show that mining was up 51 percent, from $1,352,202 to $2,045,299, while chemicals were down 30 percent, from $366,944 last year to $258,385, and industrial machinery sales were up 34 percent, from $2,067,091 to $2,759,630.

Transportation, communications and utilities sales were down 8 percent, from $884,547 last year to $815,957, and wholesale trade sales were up 24 percent, from $10,946,109 last year to $13,627,585 this year.

Building materials and hardware sales were up 6 percent, from $2,383,097 to $2,535,487, and automotive and gasoline sales were up 11 percent, from $10,015,184 to $11,148,735.

Home furniture and furnishings sales were down 13 percent, however, at $1,073,412, compared with $1,232,274 last year, while eating and drinking places showed little change, with sales of $6,112,190 this June and sales of $6,086,410 last June.

Business services were down 24 percent, from $2,056,202 to $1,553,412, and repair services were down 26 percent, from $3,780,660 to $2,805,495 and amusement and recreation sales also were down, 14 percent from $3,481,673 to $3,002,588.

Miscellaneous sales were up 10 percent, however, at $2,728,270, compared with $2,483,876 last year.

In May, construction sales were up 52 percent, at $2,664,516, compared with $1,747,831 in May 2002, while chemical sales were up 55 percent, to $598,083 from $386,945, and industrial machinery sales were up 32 percent, to $2,829,940 from $2,139,241.

Transportation, communication and utilities category sales were up 7 percent, at $628,978, compared with $585,313 last year, while wholesale sales were up 16 percent, at $11,731,992, compared with $10,089,631 last year.

Building materials and hardware sales were down 3 percent, to $2,294,706, compared with $2,369,718 in May 2002, and automotive and gasoline sales were up 8 percent, to $10,072,458 from $9,348,712 last year.

Home furniture and furnishings sales totaled $1,690,820 in June, up 39 percent over the $1,214,290 in such sales in May 2002, but eating and drinking places sales were down 1 percent, to $5,521,484, compared with $5,573,747 last year.

Amusement and recreation sales were down 11 percent, to $1,125,131 from $1,981,314, while miscellaneous sales were up 6 percent to $2,093,117 from $1,981,314 in May 2002.

ECEDA: Encouraging Economic Growth in Elko County

ECEDA: Encouraging Economic Growth in Elko County

With a population of more than 50,000, Elko County, located in the northeastern corner of Nevada, is a growing area with a high quality of life. It contains the cities of Carlin, Elko, Wells, and West Wendover as well as the unincorporated towns of Jackpot, Montello, and Mountain City. The area has a very strong sense of community and the citizens enjoy a satisfying four season climate, moderate cost of living, 120 acres of public parks, quality education and health care, and strong economic growth.


Elko is located on the Humboldt River in the west central part of Elko County. Elko is the largest urban area and center of commerce and government in northeastern and north central Nevada. Elko was listed in the 1993 book, The 100 Best Small Towns in America, by Norman Crapmton. The annual Cowboy Poetry Gathering draws crowds from across the region. The town serves as the county seat for Elko County, the sixth largest county in the country. Elko is approximately halfway between Reno/Sparks (295 miles to the west) and Salt Lake City (237 miles eastward). Boise, Idaho is 246 miles north on State Route 223. The city encompasses a 10.6-square-mile area.
Carlin is 271 miles east of Reno/Carson City, 24 miles west of Elko and 261 west of Salt Lake City. Its location off I-80 makes it a natural stopping point for motorists. Few places are as rich in the past and present of railroading as Carlin.


Strategically located at the crossroads of Interstate 80 and U.S. 93 and served by both Union Pacific and Southern Pacific railroad, Wells offers an outstanding business climate, quality of life and recreational opportunities. Wells lies 345 miles east of Reno/Sparks, 50 miles east of Elko and 187 miles west of Salt Lake City, Utah. The city has constructed an industrial 160 acre industrial park that is fully served with water, sewer, electricity, and telephone. The park offers parcels of various sizes and is ready for your business. The Wells Industrial Park has been located to benefit from multi-modal transportation opportunities required for manufacturing, shipping and distribution.

West Wendover

West Wendover is 120 miles west of Salt Lake City, 404 miles east of Reno/Sparks and 400 miles north of Las Vegas.

As the “Economic Diversification Authority” ECEDA’s mission is to encourage and coordinate, diversified development and economic growth in Elko County. ECEDA is committed to the future of Elko County and the prosperity of its citizens. Our commitment will help you change the “world” of your business. We look forward to helping your business become part of our Elko county family.

The ECEDA Board of Directors is composed of elected officials from each of the participating cities, the County, and representatives of major local businesses. The Board meetings are held monthly. For a meeting schedule or agenda, please contact ECEDA at

ECEDA is a professional non-profit economic development authority devoted to assisting businesses and industry in their quest for the ideal location to establish or expand operations. All inquiries are handled in a strict confidential manner.